, 2009


Igor Graholski: 2009 200- 1812 18 2009 . , .

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Igor Graholski: : 27-28 2009 . (27 ) 22-23 2009

soldier of fortune: Igor Graholski : 27-28 2009 . (27 ) ? .

Igor Graholski: . .

Igor Graholski: La Coruna, 1 June 2009 Dear friends, I would like to invite you to take part in the Re-enactment of the Battle of Corunna 1809 2009, to be held in our city on 31 July and 1 and 2 August 2009. The event is sponsored by the City Council and organised by the Organising Committee of the Battle of Corunna and the Historical and Cultural Association The Royal Green Jackets, with the collaboration of the Spanish Napoleonic Association. Among other events, there will be a floral offering at the tomb of Sir John Moore, a parade of the troops through the city to the Plaza de Mara Pita, where they will be received by municipal, civil and military officers, culminating in the re-nactment of the Battle of Corunna on 1 and 2 August. I hope to see you soon, Warmest wishes, Javier Losada de Azpiazu Mayor of the City of A Coruna NOTIFICATION Dear re-enactors. As you already know, the City Council of La Coruna, via the Organising Committee of the Battle of Corunna 1809-2009, and with our assessment, is organising the spectacular Re-enactment of the Battle of Corunna at the Tower of Hercules Park. The event will take place on 31 July, and 1 and 2 August 2009, and the programme is as follows: CONDITIONS AND FINANCING: 1. Places are limited to 300 re-enactors, 10 cannons and 20 horses. 2. Nationalities: Spanish, French, British, Dutch, Belgian, Italian, Russian, Canadian, Portuguese, German and American. 3. Financing: Accommodation in bunk beds, with cupboards (at Alfonso XII Atocha Barracks), food (breakfast, lunch and dinner on Saturday and Sunday), gunpowder and travel costs of 35 Euros per re-enactor from Spain and Portugal and 45 Euros per re-enactor from other countries (there will be no buses). 4. Given the impossibility of increasing the budget, and in order to be able to meet all the conditions we have promised, we regret that we cannot provide accommodation or expenses for non-military re-enactors (water ladies, partners etc); they are free to accompany the groups but will have to pay for all their costs (we might be able to include them in meals, but this is still to be decided). 5. We would be grateful if re-enactors could wear British or French uniforms corresponding to units that were actually in the Battle, but we can also accept Spanish and Portuguese units to act as British allies. PRE-REGISTRATION: 1. We would be grateful if you could send lists of participants (the deadline is 30 June 2009) to this address. The format should be the usual one for the ANE: name, function within group, ID or passport number, arms licence etc. 2. The organisers will answer as soon as is possible, depending on numbers of re-enactors who register, percentage of firearms etc. We look forward to hearing from you, Warmest wishes, WEB SITE FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: www.batalladelacoruna.com

Igor Graholski: . http://www.pulkas.puslapiai.lt/news.php

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Igor Graholski: Period of 1809 in Golling/Sbg and the fight for the Pass Lueg. 4th to 6th September 2009 Golling 2009 Experience world history live In 2009 a part of this history will be brought to life again. In Golling and the Lueg pass (both of these names are inseparable from the last great successful fi ght of the revolt) the beginning 19th century will be brought to life with market stalls, craftsmen and other examples of everyday life. Baverian and French troops will be driven from the Lueg pass by the peasants army and the regular Austrian k.k. soldiers. More than 800 actors revolting peasants, infantry, grenadiers, artillery and about 25 cavalry, all in authentic uniforms, will re-enact the battle. Napoleons Grande Armee and also the troops of the k.k Armee all have historical weapons and equipment. Historical background The spirit of the population of Salzburg before the 1809 uprising is even more diffi cult to understand and explain than that of the people of Tirol although the destinies of both regions are closely connected. The tiroleans had a close but seldom friendly, contact to the Bayerns that reached back over hundreds of years coupled with a bond to the house of Habsburg, (the Austrian royal family). Salzburg, on the other hand, open-minded for modern thinking and new cultural developments was at the forefront of german-speaking countries. F.e., they enjoyed a freedom of press that was unprecedented in the southern german regions. After the treaty of Campo Formio on 17th October 1797 the Archbishopric of Salzburg came into Austrian hands changed against the region of Lombardei. A more than 1,000 year independence was now at an end. It is said that Salzburg fought without any alliances with neighbouring dynasties in the Napoleonic wars, and were completely independent. However, the military in Vienna, were very interested in the country on a strategic level. The resistance of the Salzburg population was encouraged by the tiroler, Andre Hofer. The owner of a farm called Sandhof believed himself to be the stronghold commander and saw it his duty to secure the north, east and south borders of the castle that Mother Nature had built. Into all this marched the French and Bavarian soldiers on the 30th October 1805. The Pressburg Treaty gave Tirol to Bayern and Salzburg to the Austrians. The once independent principality was now just an Austrian province with a parliamentary president at the head. It is now 1809 and Austria fi nds itself in the fi fth coalition war. Napoleons efforts to defeat the colonial powers, above all England, had brought the Corse to Spain and Portugal. Austria was encouraged to take up arms against France again- as the head of the Germans. Due to the success of the Spanish guerilla army in keeping Napoleon and his main army busy in Spain. It was decided to attack in three different places before Napoleon could get his army out of Spain. The main army would be led by Archduke Carl in Germany and two smaller groups would be led by Archduke Johann in Italy and Archduke Ferdinand dEste in Poland (the earlier duchy of Warsaw). Field marshal Lieutenant Marquis Johann Gabriel von Chasteler and a body of troops should support the Tiroleans in their patriotic revolt, and see that Salzburg joined in. Military reforms in 1805 had strengthened Austria, especially the creation of a militia (Landwehr). The anti-Napoleon fi ght sparked off repercussions in North Germany and started many national uprisings. The declaration of war on France 09.04.1809 was made hoping that the Prussians would immediately offer help. This did not happen, confi rming Archduke Carls own opinion, who held the declaration of war as too early. On one side, the complete reform of the k.k. military was not ended, on the other side he declared Germanys support as an Illusion Dont rely on the Germans! and he sadly kept right. Austria received only a little help from the British, and Russia (former allies from 1805) even declared war on Austria 05.05.09! In March 1809, Napoleon realised that a war with Austria couldnt be avoided. Reinforcements were sent to Southern Germany. On 10.04.1809 Archduke Carl led the main power out of Bohemia and on to Bayern. However, they were slow and Napoleon was able to unite his separated French and Rheinbund troops. The Austrians were engaged in many battles between the 20.04.1809 (south of Regensburg e.g. Battle of Abensberg) and the 22.04.1809. On this day they were fi nally defeated in Eggmhl. The strategical initiative was grabbed by the French and Vienna was occupied without a fi ght on 13.05.1809. This was followed by Archduke Carls brilliant triumph in Aspern, which was unfortunately followed by his defeat in Wagram. FML Chasteler marched through Villach and into Tirol in the middle of March. At the same time Archduke Carl ordered about 10,000 men in Pinzgau (Salzburg region) to join up with Chasteler. During April and May the shorthanded k.k. troops, together with the Salzburger and Tirolean peasants, enjoyed one success after another. The military organisation of the Salzburgers and the Tiroleans were very similar. Altogether there were 23 rifl e and militia(landsturm)companies from Salzburg. Although the free Tirolean rifl eman were seen by the military organisation as having the same rank as the sharpshooter companies, it often happened that the enemy treated them as franctireurs and hung them on the spot if captured. A character study of the militia groups of 1809 appeared in Nrnberg in 1810: ...The militia (lLndsturm) were dressed in uniforms. The jacket was grey, lined with green; the Tiroler hat, wide, round, dark green with a light green band tucked with a few bird feathers; neck, breast and knees were naked. The offi cers only wore a golden sword band to show their rank. The weapons of these unschooled and unpractised soldiers were a colourful array. Old tool sheds were emptied to fi nd them weapons. Matchlock rifl es were cleaned up for service. Where there were not enough, maces, halberds polearms, pikes and other similar old fashioned weapons, even sickles were used. The best shooters of chamois and other hunters brought their own drawn-barrel-guns.... It can be seen at best how dangerous the French Emperor thought this uprising to be through the three quality men he put in charge of his divisions. Commander-in-chief was the French marshal Lefebvre. The two highest generals were from Bayern, Erasmus von Deroy and Karl Philipp von Wrede. Napoleons orders were clear and unmistakable even though they were contradictory to the rules of war at that time, Charity and mercy are not for them, no evidence of an uprising remain, it should be a reminder of revenge for these mountain people. Lefebvre had the right to do whatever was necessary, as Napoleon said, ils ont autoris les massacres. He even put a high bounty on FML Chastelers head. The military circles in Vienna were also convinced of the strategical importance of the Salzburg mountains. This was proved to be correct by the battles fought on the Lueg pass. These battles have become a glorious chapter in the history of Austria and those who defended him. The orders were to block the ways to Styria, Carinthia, the Salzburg mountains and Tirol. Napoleon had categorically said to Lefebvre, however, that the Lueg pass must be held open. He wanted to send 40,000 French and Bavarian troops into Tirol as soon as soldiers were available in Austria. Already on the 1st May 1809 fi ghting had begun on the Lueg pass. The Austrians held the upper hand against the half-hearted attacks of the Bavarians. The Austrians sent a company forwards to Golling to get enough provisions to hold the pass for at least 8 days. While they were loading up the wagons the advance guard from the French and Bayerns arrived. There followed a half an hour skirmish before the Austrians had to retreat due to the arrival of more infantry. However, on the Lammer bridge, the Austrians managed to provide so much resistance that the supply wagons were safely delivered to the pass. After many small battles during May and June 1809, Andre Hofer gave the order to attack at last. The appearance of the determined and well-known Father Haspinger got the ball rolling. Everything was about forwards against the Lueg and pushing out the enemy. 1,000 men were gathered together in next few days. 1st company was given to Joseph Struber from Werfen and the 2nd to Peter Sieberer. In diffi cult conditions Haspinger tried to bring the landlord Struber, Sieberer and their men into the best possible positions. On 25th September Father Haspinger very early read Mass in Werfen and gave absolution. At 6 oclock he gave the order to march. What followed was a terrible massacre with heroic fi ghting from the Pongauer companies. The Bayerns were attacked from along the Salzach river, and from overhead from the Tennen- and Hagen mountains. At the same time the fl anks in Lammertal were secured by rifl emen of Ennspongau. The enemy were pushed back and had no time to remove the bridge over the so-called alten Klause. Very quickly, however, Captain Fuchs gathered his bayerish troops together and with reinforcements who were already waiting south of Golling he reattacked. Three times the Bayerns tried to take Brunneck chapel where the most important Pongauer forces were and three times they were pushed back. At 2pm, under heavy loss, they managed it at last. The two Pongauer captains Seidl and Ramischek lost their lives. At about 5pm Peter Sieberer came out of the Bluntautal and opened fi re on the Bayerish right fl ank. At the same time Haspinger stormed forward. The Bavarians had to leave the little church and retriet back to Golling, crossing the Lammer-bridge. Setting this bridge under fi re, it was impossible for the Austrians to follow them. At the night of the 27th September, the Bavarians retrieted back in the direction of Hallein and Salzburg. Even on the 27th September, Haspinger stormed into the fl at Salzach valley and met resistance in Kuchl. On 29th September he had control of Hallein after a skirmish at Georgenberg. When Napoleon heard of this he said angrily, I am disappointed with the Bavarian troops, tell me if the Bavarians want my esteem or my contempt. Struber, who beat 6,000 French and Bayern troops with just 400, was immediately a peoples hero and was awarded the rank of Major by Andre Hofer one day after the Lueg pass victory. The storming of the Lueg pass is a model example for the adept use of strong fl anking platoons on diffi cult to negotiate high mountain paths, by blocking the enemy with their own main forces. A huge thank you from the rest of the country remained allusive. In 1817 Struber became an honorary medal but the earlier decrees never happened and a promised diploma was later refused. In 1833 he was allowed a small pension. (Alms). Struber lived until 1845, esteemed by his neighbours. The erection of a statue was prevented by the emperors offi cials for decades. On 22nd February 1898 the Wiener Zeitung was at last allowed to print in the late edition, a quote from a Salzburg newspaper: ...The k.k. ministry for Culture and education has decided, in the circumstances that the Joseph Struber society has sent a sketch for the Joseph Struber memorial (..) that is more or less acceptable, for the erection of the memorial (..) subvention of fi ve hundred gulden.... The Presentation: The battle and camp areas are found directly beside the Lammer river on whose opposite side is the long meadow which leads directly to the Lueg pass. In the right of the picture underneath is a small hill surrounded by trees. In front of this the k.k. troops, supported by the Salzburger militia and peasants, will try and storm the French/Bavarian stronghold and push them north. An important part of this presentation will be taken over by the Austrian Jgerkompanie who will be on the other side of the river and will start the battle by crossing the river. There will be a confrontation between plundering French and the rescuing Austrians direct in the Markt Golling. We also wish to re-enact the historical episode of the rescued provisions. In between the presentations, the k.k. and French regiments will demonstrate their exercises, camp life, drill and a parade of all actors. Napoleon himself (Mark Schneider) will lead his troops. The Camp: In a fi eld right by the Lueg pass there will be a divided camp with Austrian and Bayern/French soldiers. Here the uniforms can be repaired, the rifl es cleaned, food is cooked, eaten, music is made, soldiers sleep - actual living history. As well as this classical camp life we offer information points where the public can collect information about the soldiers equipment, the regiments, the history etc... They can also try out different things. Music and song are a further highlight of this historical/romantic camp life. The Battle of Lueg pass 2009 - detailed programme Friday 04th September 2009: 09 am onwards Setting-up of market 12 am onwards Arrival of actors, reception and registration by the grenadiers of the IR3, distribution of coupons for food and gunpowder, directions to campsite and putting up tent 06 pm Offi cers meeting about programme of Friday evening 07.30 - 08 pm March of Austrians and French/Bavarians to the village of Golling, report to the authorities (Mayor), fi rst skirmish, plunderings by the French, defending by the Austrians, march back to camp, afterwards camplife, music, 10 pm Meeting and generals dinner in Burg Golling for offi cers. Saturday 5th September 2009: 07.30 am wake-up, breakfast 09 am Information focus: Infantry, Cavalry, artillery: kit, uniform, exercise, drill, getting the crowd involved, shooting practise, drill with shooting, presentation of the cavalry (hitting the target etc...) 12 pm lunch 01.30 pm parade on the battle fi eld, presentation of individual troop sections 02.30 pm Battle (60 to 90 mins) The Salzburg and Tirol traditional groups, who are actively a part of the battle, are under the command of the k.k army. They will be armed with threshers, scythes etc.. The few with carabineers (Werndl, Wenzl) are under the command of the 1st Austrian Jgerkompanie. 04 pm information to the public, camp life, camp fi re 06 pm dinner 07 pm ceremonial act on Lueg pass with a delegation from the re-enactor. At least one section from each group is expected with minimum a fl ag, an offi cer and one man. A shuttle will bring the participants to the Lueg pass and return 09.30 pm fi ring a salute by the artillery on the battlefi eld 10 pm camp life with historical music Sunday 6th September 2009: 08 am wake-up, breakfast 09.30 am ceremonial act with open air morning worship on battle fi eld 11 am Information focus: Infantry, Cavalry, artillery: kit, uniform, exercise, drill, getting the crowd involved, shooting practise, drill with shooting, presentation of the cavalry (hitting the target etc...) 12 pm lunch 01.30 pm parade on the battle fi eld, presentation of individual troop sections 02 pm Battle (60 to 90 mins) The Salzburg and Tirol traditional groups, who are actively a part of the battle, are under the command of the k.k army. They will be armed with threshers, scythes etc. The few with carabineers (Werndl, Wenzl) are under the command of the 1st Austrian Jgerkompanie. 16.00 Uhr taking down the camp, end of event. What we offer the re-enactors: Play area of 30,000m2 with the impressive background of the Salzburg mountains Camp site for actors and horses Provisions from the day of arrival for actors (meat and vegetables for self- cooking, water, beer) and horses (water, hay, oats) Fire wood and straw for the sleeping bags Gunpowder Sanitary facilities inc. Showers

Igor Graholski: 1809-2009 www.bauern-napoleon.at

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